Recent synthetic additions to the visible light photoredox catalysis toolbox
The boom in visible light photoredox catalysis (VLPC) research has demonstrated that this novel synthetic approach is here to stay. VLPC enables reactive radical intermediates to be catalytically generated at ambient temperature, a feat not generally allowed through traditional pyrolysis- or radical initiator-based methodologies. VLPC has vastly extended the range of substrates and reaction schemes that have been traditionally the domain of radical reactions. In this review the photophysics background of VLPC will be briefly discussed, followed by a report on recent inroads of VLPC into decarboxylative couplings and radical C–H functionalization of aromatic compounds. The bulk of the review will be dedicated to advances in synergistic catalysis involving VLPC, namely the combination of photoredox catalysis with organocatalysis, including β-functionalization of carbonyl groups, functionalization of weak aliphatic C–H bonds, and anti-Markovnikov hydrofunctionalization of alkenes; dual catalysis with gold or with nickel, photoredox catalysis as an oxidation promoter in transition metal catalysis, and acid-catalyzed enantioselective radical addition to π systems.