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Volume 172, 2014
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Controlled covalent modification of epitaxial single layer graphene on 6H-SiC (0001) with aryliodonium salts using electrochemical methods

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Abstract

Controlled covalent modification of graphene via electrochemically assisted grafting of molecules is expected to be a robust method for tuning the doping levels and work function and therefore enabling the deployment of graphene in photovoltaic and battery applications. By using aryliodonium salts, in particular, bis(4-nitrophenyl)iodonium tetrafluoroborate, the grafting density can be adjusted from 4 × 1013 to 3 × 1014 molecules per cm2. New insights on the grafting mechanism and the reactivity of the graphene are reported here. Clean basal planes were found to have increased reactivity compared to atomic-level point defects (single vacancies). High resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) shows that some of the grafts present three-fold symmetry, which may indicate that the grafts are pairs of molecules. The point of attachment of the second molecule is under investigation using computational work which includes simulations of the STM images. Elongated as well as extended grafts (larger than 4 nm) are also observed.

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Publication details

The article was received on 10 Mar 2014, accepted on 06 May 2014 and first published on 09 Oct 2014


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00038B
Citation: Faraday Discuss., 2014,172, 273-291
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    Controlled covalent modification of epitaxial single layer graphene on 6H-SiC (0001) with aryliodonium salts using electrochemical methods

    K. J. Stevenson, P. A. Veneman, R. I. Gearba, K. M. Mueller, B. J. Holliday, T. Ohta and C. K. Chan, Faraday Discuss., 2014, 172, 273
    DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00038B

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