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Bi3+ acting both as electron and as hole trap in La-, Y-, and LuPO4

Abstract

Vacuum referred binding energy (VRBE)-guided design of Bi3+-based storage and afterglow materials together with charge carrier trapping processes are explored with a study on bismuth and lanthanide doped rare earth ortho-phosphates. By combining Bi3+ with the shallow hole trap of Tb3+ or Pr3+, Bi3+ appears to act as deep electron trap and as hole recombination center in YPO4. By combining Bi3+ with the deep electron trap of Tm3+, Sm3+, Yb3+, or Eu3+, Bi3+ appears to act as shallow hole trap in YPO4. Here recombination is also realized by means of hole release instead of more commonly reported electron release. Holes are released from Bi4+ and then recombine through the valence band with the electrons trapped at Ln2+ to produce Ln3+ 4f-4f emission. Lu3+ was introduced in YPO4 to engineer the valence band (VB) energy and to tailor the hole trap depth of Bi3+ in Y1-xLuxPO4 solid solutions. The results show that with increasing x the VRBE at the valence band top moves downward and the hole trap depth of Bi3+ increases. With a deep understanding of Bi2+ and Bi3+ trap level locations and on the charge carrier trapping process, this work broadens the avenue to explore new persistent luminescence and storage materials by using Bi3+ both as electron and as hole trap.

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Publication details

The article was received on 01 Mar 2018, accepted on 13 May 2018 and first published on 14 May 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8TC01020J
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. C, 2018, Accepted Manuscript
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    Bi3+ acting both as electron and as hole trap in La-, Y-, and LuPO4

    T. Lyu and P. Dorenbos, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2018, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C8TC01020J

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