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Issue 7, 2018
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Architecting a nonlinear hybrid crystal–glass metamaterial fiber for all-optical photonic integration

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Abstract

The ideal form of a compact all-optical frequency conversion in a photonic circuit is a monolithical intracavity and resonant nonlinear fiber scheme. However, integrating nonlinear crystalline material that provides significant gain and realizes enhanced second-order nonlinearity (χ(2)) remains challenging to date. This challenge is due to the inherent conflict in achieving crystallization of nonlinear crystals in a rather unstable state, while attaining a sufficient thermal stability for glass fiber drawing. In addition, existing nano-fabrication techniques, such as the e-beam and focused ion beam, are not necessarily suitable for fabricating such large-scale three-dimensional metamaterials throughout the fiber. We therefore propose and demonstrate, for the first time, a new platform toward an enhanced χ(2), where a large-scale harmonic crystal (Si4+:γ-Al2O3) is monolithically integrated in a hybrid crystal–glass metamaterial fiber cavity. Through a comprehensive nano-scale investigation, along with nonlinear optical measurement, we confirmed a detailed growth mechanism for a non-centrosymmetric harmonic crystal directly derived from a centrosymmetric sapphire template. The key to this accomplishment lies in the development of a simple and scalable laser-based fiber drawing that involves the interplay of the inter-crystalline layer forming, the crystal core phase separation, and considerable defective centers. The proof-of-concept developed in this study can be applied to any nonlinear optical fiber comprised of hybrid materials, depending on the practical applications.

Graphical abstract: Architecting a nonlinear hybrid crystal–glass metamaterial fiber for all-optical photonic integration

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Publication details

The article was received on 09 Nov 2017, accepted on 28 Dec 2017 and first published on 29 Dec 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7TC05112C
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. C, 2018,6, 1659-1669
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    Architecting a nonlinear hybrid crystal–glass metamaterial fiber for all-optical photonic integration

    C. Lai, C. Lo, J. Huang, C. Fan Chiang, D. H. Nguyen, Y. Chen and C. Liao, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2018, 6, 1659
    DOI: 10.1039/C7TC05112C

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