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An in situ approach for the synthesis of a gum ghatti-g-interpenetrating terpolymer network hydrogel for the high-performance adsorption mechanism evaluation of Cd(II), Pb(II), Bi(III) and Sb(III)

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Abstract

Herein, gum ghatti-g-(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-3-(N-isopropylacrylamido) propanoic acid-co-sodium acrylate) (GTINIAMSA), a novel interpenetrating terpolymer network hydrogel with unprecedented thermomechanical and physicochemical properties and excellent recyclability, was synthesized via the grafting of gum ghatti (GTI) and the in situ strategic protrusion of 3-(N-isopropylacrylamido) propanoic acid (NIPAMPA) during the solution polymerization of sodium acrylate (SA) and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) using N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and potassium persulfate (PPS)/sodium bisulfite (SBS) as a cross-linker and redox pair of initiators, respectively, through the systematic multistage optimization of the constituents and the reaction temperature for a comprehensive understanding of the superadsorption mechanism of hazardous metal ions, i.e. M(II/III), like Cd(II), Pb(II), Bi(III) and Sb(III). The unorthodox in situ attachment of NIPAMPA, grafting of GTI into NIPAm-co-NIPAMPA-co-SA (NIAMSA) matrix and the superadsorption mechanism were systematically investigated via extensive unloaded and/or loaded microstructural analyses by FTIR, 1H-/13C-NMR, C 1s-/O 1s-/Cd 3d5/2,3/2-/Pb 4f7/2,5/2-/Bi 4f7/2,5/2-/Sb 3d3/2-XPS, TGA, XRD, FESEM and EDX, along with the measurements of the %gel content (% GC), pH at point of zero charge (pHPZC), % graft ratio (% GR) and network parameters of the hydrogels. The prevalence of ionic (I) and variegated coordinative interactions, such as monodentate (M), bidentate bridging (BB) and bidentate chelation (BC), between GTINIAMSA and M(II/III) were also investigated by FTIR and the fitting of kinetics data to a pseudo-second-order model as well as by the measurements of the activation energies of adsorption. The equilibrium adsorption data of M(II/III) were fitted excellently to the Langmuir isotherm model. The thermodynamically spontaneous chemisorption processes showed the excellent maximum adsorption capacities (ACs) of 1477.83, 1568.81, 1582.38 and 1518.09 mg g−1 for Cd(II), Pb(II), Bi(III), and Sb(III), respectively, at 303 K with an adsorbent dose of 0.02 g and initial concentration of M(II/III) = 500–800 ppm.

Graphical abstract: An in situ approach for the synthesis of a gum ghatti-g-interpenetrating terpolymer network hydrogel for the high-performance adsorption mechanism evaluation of Cd(ii), Pb(ii), Bi(iii) and Sb(iii)

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Publication details

The article was received on 02 Feb 2018, accepted on 06 Apr 2018 and first published on 06 Apr 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8TA01106K
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. A, 2018, Advance Article
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    An in situ approach for the synthesis of a gum ghatti-g-interpenetrating terpolymer network hydrogel for the high-performance adsorption mechanism evaluation of Cd(II), Pb(II), Bi(III) and Sb(III)

    N. R. Singha, M. Karmakar, M. Mahapatra, H. Mondal, A. Dutta, M. Deb, M. Mitra, C. Roy and P. K. Chattopadhyay, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C8TA01106K

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