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Nitrogen-rich hollow carbon spheres decorated with FeCo/fluorine-rich carbon for high performance symmetric supercapacitors

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Abstract

A novel approach to fluorine-rich carbon (FC) shell formation on an electron-rich metal surface based on the electronegativity concept is reported. Basically, highly electronegative elements are strongly attracted by low electronegative/electron-rich elements through dipole interaction, which leads to the formation of fluorine-rich carbon shells on metals at various fluorine quantities. Herein, nitrogen-rich hollow carbon spheres decorated with fluorine-rich carbon shell covered metals (FC@M/NHCS, M = Fe, Co, and FeCo) were synthesized by co-polymerization on SiO2, adsorption of metal precursors, and etching of the SiO2, followed by sintering. The fluorine content, quantified by XPS and SEM-EDS studies, decreased according to FeCo > Fe > Co in FC@M/NHCS. HAADF-STEM elemental mapping studies clearly confirmed fluorine-rich carbon shell formation on the metal surface. The influence of fluorine content order in the as-synthesized materials was reflected in their capacitance performances. FC@FeCo/NHCS electrode depicted the maximum specific capacitance of 302.0 F g−1 at 0.2 A g−1 in 6 M KOH medium, delivering excellent stability with no losses over 5000 cycles at 5 A g−1. The symmetric supercapacitor (SSC) devices operated at 1.5 V by delivering maximum device specific capacitance of 51.2 F g−1 at 0.2 A g−1. It exhibited 81.3% of capacitance retention at 10 A g−1 with the FC@FeCo/NHCS. The maximum energy density of 15.3 W h kg−1 at 0.2 A g−1 and the maximum power density of 5100 W kg−1 at 10 A g−1 were delivered by the FC@FeCo/NHCS device. This study provides an ideal way for synthesizing fluorine-rich carbon materials for high energy storage/conversion applications.

Graphical abstract: Nitrogen-rich hollow carbon spheres decorated with FeCo/fluorine-rich carbon for high performance symmetric supercapacitors

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Publication details

The article was received on 02 Jan 2018, accepted on 26 Mar 2018 and first published on 26 Mar 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8TA00028J
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. A, 2018, Advance Article
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    Nitrogen-rich hollow carbon spheres decorated with FeCo/fluorine-rich carbon for high performance symmetric supercapacitors

    M. Karuppannan, Y. Kim, Y. Sung and O. J. Kwon, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C8TA00028J

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