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Issue 4, 2018
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Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus containing metal-free photocatalysts for hydrogen production: progress and challenges

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Abstract

Photocatalytic hydrogen production from water is a green and renewable path for solar fuel production. Hydrogen can be advantageously stored directly and burned without emission of deleterious CO and NOx gases. Photocatalysis therefore shows significant promise as a part solution to a sustainable and affordable energy supply in an era post-fossil fuels. Influenced by the Fujishima–Honda effect, significant advances in photocatalytic hydrogen production have occurred at the laboratory-scale. For wide adoption however, the photocatalysts will need to be made from earth-abundant materials, be stable and scalable from laboratory-to-large-scale, and have high conversion efficiency. In this regard, metal-free photocatalysts show practical promise in meeting these requirements. To foster research in materials design, here we critically review recent significant developments in metal-free photocatalysts consisting of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and discuss how future large-scale hydrogen production via overall water-splitting could be accomplished economically.

Graphical abstract: Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus containing metal-free photocatalysts for hydrogen production: progress and challenges

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Publication details

The article was received on 27 Nov 2017, accepted on 22 Dec 2017 and first published on 22 Dec 2017


Article type: Review Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7TA10404A
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. A, 2018,6, 1305-1322
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    Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus containing metal-free photocatalysts for hydrogen production: progress and challenges

    M. Z. Rahman, K. Davey and S. Qiao, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2018, 6, 1305
    DOI: 10.1039/C7TA10404A

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