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Evaluation of multiple cation/anion perovskite solar cells through life cycle assessment

Abstract

After the great initiation of perovskite as a photovoltaic material, laboratory efficiencies similar to other photovoltaic technologies already commercialised have been reached. Consequently, recent research interests on perovskite solar cells try to address the stability improvement as well as make its industrialisation possible. Record efficiencies in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have been achieved using as active material a multiple cation/anion perovskite by combining methylammonium (MA) and formamidinium (FA), but also Cs cation and I and Br as anions, materials that also have demonstrated a superior stability. Herein, the environmental performance of the production of such perovskite films was evaluated via life cycle assessment. Our study points out that multiple cation/anion perovskite films show major detrimental environmental impacts for all categories assessed, except for abiotic depletion potential, when they are compared with a canonical perovskite MAPbI3. In addition, a closer analysis of the materials utilised for the synthesis of the different multiple cation perovskites compositions revealed that lead halide reagents and chlorobenzene were the most adverse compounds in terms of impact. However, the former is used in all the perovskite compositions and the later can be avoided by the use of alternative fabrication methods to anti-solvent. To this extent, FAI, with the current synthesis procedures, is the most determining compound as it increases significantly the impacts and the cost in comparison with MAI. A further economic analysis, exposed that multiple cation perovskites need a significantly higher photoconversion efficiency to produce the same payback times than canonical perovskite.

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Publication details

The article was received on 04 Feb 2018, accepted on 07 May 2018 and first published on 09 May 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8SE00053K
Citation: Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2018, Accepted Manuscript
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    Evaluation of multiple cation/anion perovskite solar cells through life cycle assessment

    J. A. Alberola-Borràs, R. Vidal and I. Mora Seró, Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2018, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C8SE00053K

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