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An ionic liquid based sodium metal-hybrid supercapacitor-battery

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Abstract

There is growing interest in developing sodium based energy storage devices as alternatives to Li for large-scale energy storage. We report a highly stable hybrid system comprising a sodium metal anode, a highly porous N/S co-doped mesoporous carbon cathode and the non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte N-propyl-N-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (C3mpyrFSI). This hybrid device operates at 100% coulombic efficiency and shows almost complete capacity retention over 3000 cycles. Owing to the reversible cathode reactions between Na+ and N/S functionalities on the carbon surface, a very high capacity of 716 mA h g−1 (at a rate of C/16) was achieved between 3.8 V and 0.005 V vs. Na+/Na. An optimised device could provide energy density as high as 263 W h kg−1. At high rate, the devices achieved power density of 1463 W kg−1. These metrics increase to 270 W h kg−1 and 3822 W kg−1 at 50 °C, highlighting the excellent combination of a supercapacitor-type cathode with a sodium metal anode and an ionic liquid electrolyte for large-scale energy storage.

Graphical abstract: An ionic liquid based sodium metal-hybrid supercapacitor-battery

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Publication details

The article was received on 21 Sep 2017, accepted on 19 Dec 2017 and first published on 19 Dec 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7SE00547D
Citation: Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2018, Advance Article
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    An ionic liquid based sodium metal-hybrid supercapacitor-battery

    T. C. Mendes, F. Zhou, A. J. Barlow, M. Forsyth, P. C. Howlett and D. R. MacFarlane, Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7SE00547D

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