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Issue 9, 2018
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Differentiating surface titanium chemical states of anatase TiO2 functionalized with various groups

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Abstract

As the chemical state of titanium on the surface of TiO2 can be tuned by varying its host facet and surface adsorbate, improved performance has been achieved in fields such as heterogeneous (photo)catalysis, lithium batteries, dye-sensitized solar cells, etc. However, at present, no acceptable surface technique can provide information about the chemical state and distribution of surface cations among facets, making it difficult to unambiguously correlate facet-dependent properties. Even though X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is regarded as a sensitive surface technique, it collects data from the top few layers of the sample, instead of a specific facet, and hence fails to distinguish small changes in the chemical state of Ti imposed by adsorbates on a facet. Herein, based on experimental (chemical probe-assisted NMR) and theoretical (DFT) studies, the true surface Ti chemical states associated with surface modification using –O–, –F, –OH and –SO4 functional groups on the (001) and (101) facets of anatase TiO2 are clearly distinguished. It is also demonstrated, for the first time, that the local electronic effects on surface Ti imposed by adsorbates vary depending on the facet, due to different intrinsic electronic structures.

Graphical abstract: Differentiating surface titanium chemical states of anatase TiO2 functionalized with various groups

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Publication details

The article was received on 08 Nov 2017, accepted on 28 Jan 2018 and first published on 29 Jan 2018


Article type: Edge Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7SC04828A
Citation: Chem. Sci., 2018,9, 2493-2500
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
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    Differentiating surface titanium chemical states of anatase TiO2 functionalized with various groups

    Y. Peng, H. Chou and S. C. Edman Tsang, Chem. Sci., 2018, 9, 2493
    DOI: 10.1039/C7SC04828A

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