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Enhanced nucleation of germanium on graphene via dipole engineering


Crystalline materials preparation on incommensurate substrates has been a key topic of epitaxy. Van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy on two-dimensional (2D) materials opened novel opportunities of epitaxial growth overcoming materials compatibility issue. Therefore, vdW epitaxy has been considered as a promising approach for preparation of building blocks of flexible devices and thin film-based devices at nano/microscales. However, understanding on vdW epitaxy has not been thoroughly established. Especially, controlling nucleation during vdW epitaxy has not been achieved although nucleation in vdW epitaxy is suppressed due to absence of surface dangling bonds on 2D materials. Here we show enhancement of nucleation probability of germanium on graphene via introducing out-of-plane dipole moment without change of chemical nature of graphene. Graphene/hexagonal boron nitride stack and transferred graphene on polarized ferroelectric thin film were employed to demonstrate significant enhancement of Ge nucleation on graphene. Theoretical calculations and chemical vapor deposition were employed to elucidate the effect of out-of-plane dipole moment on nucleation in vdW epitaxy.

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Publication details

The article was received on 07 Sep 2017, accepted on 11 Feb 2018 and first published on 12 Feb 2018

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7NR06684H
Citation: Nanoscale, 2018, Accepted Manuscript
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    Enhanced nucleation of germanium on graphene via dipole engineering

    J. Yoo, T. Ahmed, R. Chen, A. Chen, Y. H. Kim, K. C. Kwon, C. W. Park, H. S. Kang, H. W. Jang, Y. J. Hong, W. Yang and C. Lee, Nanoscale, 2018, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C7NR06684H

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