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Plasma processes to detect fluorine with ICPMS/MS as [M–F]+: an argument for building a negative mode ICPMS/MS

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Abstract

Detection of fluorine with commercial ICPMS is impossible due to the high ionisation potential (IP) of fluorine. A novel approach through the formation of fluorine-containing polyatomic ions [M–F]+ in the plasma allows the successful detection of F at sub ppm levels by ICPMS/MS. Two theories behind [M–F]+ formation have been proposed, yet there is no clear understanding about the mechanism. Here, different metal solutions were tested for the characterisation of plasma processes in the formation of [M–F]+. Three characteristics: high [M–F]+ bond dissociation energy (BDE), low [M–O]+ BDE and low IP were found to be essential to get the highest sensitivity for [M–F]+. It was found that for elements with a higher [M–F]+ BDE than [M–O]+ BDE, the sensitivity decreases linearly with the second IP of the element, meaning that the major process in the plasma is the harvesting of F by M2+ to form [M–F]+. Barium exhibited the highest sensitivity for [M–F]+. However, the robustness of this approach was questioned due to matrix effects, hence an argument for re-developing negative ion ICPMS/MS was discussed in which detection limits in the sub-ppb range could be reached.

Graphical abstract: Plasma processes to detect fluorine with ICPMS/MS as [M–F]+: an argument for building a negative mode ICPMS/MS

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Publication details

The article was received on 16 Feb 2018, accepted on 16 May 2018 and first published on 16 May 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8JA00050F
Citation: J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2018, Advance Article
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    Plasma processes to detect fluorine with ICPMS/MS as [M–F]+: an argument for building a negative mode ICPMS/MS

    N. L. Azua Jamari, A. Behrens, A. Raab, E. M. Krupp and J. Feldmann, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C8JA00050F

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