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Issue 9, 2018
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Unprecedented catalytic performance in amine syntheses via Pd/g-C3N4 catalyst-assisted transfer hydrogenation

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Abstract

The preparation of amine compounds is very important for both the chemical industry and renewable feedstock processing. Nevertheless, difficulties remain in finding a catalytic system that is sufficiently active and environmentally benign for producing amine compounds. In this work, we report that g-C3N4 nanosheets as support materials can significantly boost the efficiency of Pd nanoparticles for the reduction of nitro compounds to primary amines. Using formic acid as a hydrogen donor and water as a solvent, the optimized 5 wt% Pd/g-C3N4 catalyst exhibited an unprecedented performance in the conversion of nitrobenzene into aniline (achieving almost full conversion with an extremely high turnover frequency of 4770 h−1 at room temperature), yielding the best activity ever reported for heterogeneously catalyzing nitro compound reduction. Pd/g-C3N4 catalyst was also active for the one-pot reductive amination of carbonyl compounds with nitro compounds to obtain the corresponding secondary amines with excellent selectivity (>90%). We proposed that the protic N–H+ and hydridic Pd–H on Pd/g-C3N4 are the active species for the transfer hydrogenation reaction of nitro compounds. Furthermore, Pd/g-C3N4 catalyst was highly stable with a wide scope in the syntheses of various amine compounds. This work will open up a new approach for the transfer hydrogenations of nitro compounds to produce primary or secondary amines in green chemistry.

Graphical abstract: Unprecedented catalytic performance in amine syntheses via Pd/g-C3N4 catalyst-assisted transfer hydrogenation

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Publication details

The article was received on 15 Jan 2018, accepted on 13 Mar 2018 and first published on 20 Mar 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8GC00144H
Citation: Green Chem., 2018,20, 2038-2046
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    Unprecedented catalytic performance in amine syntheses via Pd/g-C3N4 catalyst-assisted transfer hydrogenation

    X. Xu, J. Luo, L. Li, D. Zhang, Y. Wang and G. Li, Green Chem., 2018, 20, 2038
    DOI: 10.1039/C8GC00144H

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