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Fermented goat milk consumption improves iron status and evoked inflammatory signalling during anemia recovery.


In spite of the crucial role of the inflammatory state during anemia condition, to date, no studies have directly tested the modulation of cytokines during iron overload. The aim of this work was to contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology and recovery from iron deficiency, by studying how fermented goat milk consumption affects inflammatory signalling during iron repletion. Eighty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days, divided in two groups (control group receiving normal-Fe diet and Fe-deficient group receiving low-Fe diet). Lately, rats were fed with fermented goat or cow milk-based diets, with a normal-Fe content or Fe-overload (450 mg kg−1) for 30 days. After feeding the fermented milks, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed. Anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-13, IL-10 and IL-4) were higher in both groups of animals (control and anemic) fed fermented goat milk either with normal-Fe or Fe-overload with respect to fermented cow milk. With regard to the pro-inflammatory signalling, fermented goat milk consumption decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12p70 and IP-10). Fe-overload increased the anti-inflammatory cytokines together with IL-1β and IP-10. Fermented goat milk consumption improves hematological status and promotes beneficial metabolic responses related with the inflammatory signaling in nutritional ferropenic anemia recovery, which may be a dietary strategy to lessen the evoked inflammation during iron repletion. Additionally, parameters of inflammation should therefore be incorporated as routine biomarkers of iron deficiency or overload severity.

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Publication details

The article was received on 22 Mar 2018, accepted on 09 May 2018 and first published on 10 May 2018

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8FO00552D
Citation: Food Funct., 2018, Accepted Manuscript
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    Fermented goat milk consumption improves iron status and evoked inflammatory signalling during anemia recovery.

    I. Lopez-Aliaga, J. D. Garcia-Pedro, J. Moreno-Fernandez, M. J. M. Alferez, M. Lopez-Frias and J. Diaz Castro, Food Funct., 2018, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C8FO00552D

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