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Probiotic/prebiotic correction for adverse effects of iron fortification on intestinal resistance to Salmonella infection in weaning mice

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Abstract

Iron fortification has been associated with a modest increase in diarrhea risk among children. Herein, we investigate the correction for this unwanted side effect with probiotic/prebiotic supplementation in weaning mice. Iron fortification with 250 ppm and 500 ppm ferrous sulfate for 30 days significantly increased the species richness of the mouse gut microbiota compared to controls. The 500 ppm-FeSO4 diet caused a significantly decreased abundance of potentially beneficial Lactobacillus. During infection with the foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), mice on the 500 ppm-FeSO4 diet showed earlier appearance of poisoning symptoms, higher rates of weight and appetite loss, and lower survival rates, all of which were effectively reversed by supplementation with a probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus) or a prebiotic (inulin) for 7 days before infection. Iron fortification with 500 ppm ferrous sulfate also increased fecal shedding and spleen and liver load of viable S. Typhimurium, suggesting its promoting effect on pathogen colonization and translocation, and this negative effect was found to be well corrected by supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus or inulin. Light and transmission electron microscopic observation on the ileal villus structure revealed the histopathological impairment of the intestine by iron fortification with both 250 ppm and 500 ppm ferrous sulfate, and the intestinal lesions were markedly alleviated by supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus or inulin. These results provide experimental evidence for the increased diarrhea risk upon iron fortification with high pathogen load, and demonstrate that probiotic or prebiotic supplementation can be used to eliminate the potential harm of iron fortification on gut health.

Graphical abstract: Probiotic/prebiotic correction for adverse effects of iron fortification on intestinal resistance to Salmonella infection in weaning mice

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Publication details

The article was received on 04 Jul 2017, accepted on 30 Dec 2017 and first published on 02 Jan 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7FO00990A
Citation: Food Funct., 2018, Advance Article
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    Probiotic/prebiotic correction for adverse effects of iron fortification on intestinal resistance to Salmonella infection in weaning mice

    F. Lin, H. Wu, M. Zeng, G. Yu, S. Dong and H. Yang, Food Funct., 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7FO00990A

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