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Epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-α in human milk of different lactation stages and different regions and relationship with maternal diet

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the concentration of EGF and TGF-α in breast milk among different lactations and different regions, and further analyze their association with maternal dietary intake. Breast milk samples and 24-hour food records were obtained from lactating mothers on day 1 (colostrum), day 14 (transitional milk) and day 42 (mature milk) from Hangzhou (n = 76), Lanzhou (n = 76) and Beijing (n = 76), China. Concentrations of EGF and TGF-α in breast milk were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Breast milk concentration of EGF was significantly decreased over lactation periods (p < 0.001), while TGF-α was significantly increased over lactation periods (p < 0.001). EGF concentration in breast milk was significantly higher in Lanzhou than Beijing and Hangzhou (p < 0.001), while TGF-α concentration was significantly higher in Beijing than Lanzhou and Hangzhou (p < 0.001). The concentration of EGF in breast milk was significantly negatively associated with dietary intake of protein (p = 0.042), total energy (p = 0.031), vegetables (p = 0.002), fruits (p < 0.001), soy products (p = 0.001) and dairy foods (p < 0.001), while TGF-α was significantly positively associated with dietary intake of carbohydrate (p = 0.023) and dairy products (p = 0.011), and significantly negatively associated with dietary intake of protein (p = 0.008) and meat (p = 0.016). In conclusion, EGF and TGF-α concentrations in breast milk were greatly varied by regions and lactation periods, and significantly influenced by maternal dietary intake.

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Publication details

The article was received on 27 May 2017, accepted on 28 Dec 2017 and first published on 02 Jan 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7FO00770A
Citation: Food Funct., 2018, Accepted Manuscript
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    Epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-α in human milk of different lactation stages and different regions and relationship with maternal diet

    M. Lu, J. Jiang, K. Wu and D. Li, Food Funct., 2018, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C7FO00770A

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