Jump to main content
Jump to site search


Far-red fluorescent probes for canonical and non-canonical nucleic acid structures: current progress and future implications

Author affiliations

Abstract

The structural diversity and functional relevance of nucleic acids (NAs), mainly deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), are indispensable for almost all living organisms, with minute aberrations in their structure and function becoming causative factors in numerous human diseases. The standard structures of NAs, termed canonical structures, are supported by Watson–Crick hydrogen bonding. Under special physiological conditions, NAs adopt distinct spatial organisations, giving rise to non-canonical conformations supported by hydrogen bonding other than the Watson–Crick type; such non-canonical structures have a definite function in controlling gene expression and are considered as novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Development of molecular probes for these canonical and non-canonical DNA/RNA structures has been an active field of research. Among the numerous probes studied, probes with turn-on fluorescence in the far-red (600–750 nm) region are highly sought-after due to minimal autofluorescence and cellular damage. Far-red fluorescent probes are vital for real-time imaging of NAs in live cells as they provide good resolution and minimal perturbation of the cell under investigation. In this review, we present recent advances in the area of far-red fluorescent probes of DNA/RNA and non-canonical G-quadruplex structures. For the sake of continuity and completeness, we provide a brief overview of visible fluorescent probes. Utmost importance is given to design criteria, characteristic properties and biological applications, including in cellulo imaging, apart from critical discussion on limitations of the far-red fluorescent probes. Finally, we offer current and future prospects in targeting canonical and non-canonical NAs specific to cellular organelles, through sequence- and conformation-specific far-red fluorescent probes. We also cover their implications in chemical and molecular biology, with particular focus on decoding various disease mechanisms involving NAs.

Graphical abstract: Far-red fluorescent probes for canonical and non-canonical nucleic acid structures: current progress and future implications

Back to tab navigation

Publication details

The article was received on 08 Nov 2017 and first published on 21 Dec 2017


Article type: Review Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7CS00774D
Citation: Chem. Soc. Rev., 2018, Advance Article
  •   Request permissions

    Far-red fluorescent probes for canonical and non-canonical nucleic acid structures: current progress and future implications

    Y. V. Suseela, N. Narayanaswamy, S. Pratihar and T. Govindaraju, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7CS00774D

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements