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Issue 17, 2018
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Examination of inequivalent wetting on the crystal habit surfaces of RS-ibuprofen using grid-based molecular modelling

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Abstract

Synthonic engineering tools, including grid-based searching molecular modelling, are applied to investigate the wetting interactions of the solute and four crystallisation solvents (ethanol, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile and toluene) with the {100}, {001} and {011} forms of RS-ibuprofen. The grid-based methods, in particular the construction of a crystal slab parallel to a given plane in a coordinate system with one axis perpendicular to the surface, are defined in detail. The interaction strengths and nature (dispersive, hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) or coulombic forces) are related to the crystal growth rates and morphologies. The solute is found to interact strongest with the capping {011}, then the side {001} and weakest with the top {100} habit surfaces. The solute interactions with the {100} and {001} surfaces are found to be almost solely dominated by dispersive force contributions, whilst the same with the {011} surfaces are found to have a greater contribution from H-bonding and coulombic forces. The increased surface rugosity, at the molecular level of the {011} surfaces, results in a favourable docking site in a surface ‘valley’, not present in the {100} and {001} surfaces. The H-bonding solvents ethanol, acetonitrile and ethyl acetate are found to strongly interact with the {011} surfaces and weakly with the {001} surfaces, with the {011} interactions having a much greater contribution from H-bonding and coulombic forces. The interaction energies of the apolar and aprotic solvent toluene, with the {011} and {001} surfaces, are found to be very close. Toluene is found having slightly stronger interactions with the {001} than the {011} surfaces, which are all dominated by dispersive interactions. The ratio of the average energy of the top 100 solvent interactions with the {001} surface divided by the average energy of the top 100 interactions with the {011} surface is compared to the ratio of the experimentally measured growth rates of the same forms. In general, the interaction energy ratio is found to have an inverse ratio with the growth rates, implying that the solvents which are calculated to interact strongly with a particular surface are impeding the growth of that surface and reducing the growth rate, in turn impacting upon the final morphology of the material.

Graphical abstract: Examination of inequivalent wetting on the crystal habit surfaces of RS-ibuprofen using grid-based molecular modelling

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Publication details

The article was received on 13 Dec 2017, accepted on 27 Feb 2018 and first published on 17 Apr 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7CP08354H
Citation: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018,20, 11622-11633
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
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    Examination of inequivalent wetting on the crystal habit surfaces of RS-ibuprofen using grid-based molecular modelling

    I. Rosbottom, J. H. Pickering, B. Etbon, R. B. Hammond and K. J. Roberts, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018, 20, 11622
    DOI: 10.1039/C7CP08354H

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