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Issue 12, 2018
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Quantification of biomolecules responsible for biomarkers in the surface-enhanced Raman spectra of bacteria using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

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Abstract

Recently, specific biomarkers in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of bacteria have been successfully exploited for rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) – dubbed SERS-AST. The biomolecules responsible for these bacterial SERS biomarkers have been identified as several purine derivative metabolites involved in bacterial purine salvage pathways (W. R. Premasiri, J. C. Lee, A. Sauer-Budge, R. Theberge, C. E. Costello and L. D. Ziegler, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2016, 408, 4631). Here we quantified these metabolites in the SERS spectra of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS). The time dependences of the concentrations of these molecules were measured using 13C- or 12C-purine derivatives as internal and external standards respectively in UPLC/ESI-MS measurements. Surprisingly, a single S. aureus and an E. coli cell were found to release millions of adenine and hypoxanthine into a water environment in an hour respectively. Furthermore, simulated SERS spectra of bacterial supernatants based on the mixtures of purine derivatives with measured concentrations also show great similarity with those of the corresponding bacterial samples. Our results not only provide a quantitative foundation for the emerging SERS-AST method but also suggest the potential of exploiting SERS for in situ monitoring the changes in bacterial purine salvage processes in response to different physical and chemical challenges.

Graphical abstract: Quantification of biomolecules responsible for biomarkers in the surface-enhanced Raman spectra of bacteria using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

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Publication details

The article was received on 18 Oct 2017, accepted on 06 Feb 2018 and first published on 19 Feb 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7CP07103E
Citation: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018,20, 8032-8041
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    Quantification of biomolecules responsible for biomarkers in the surface-enhanced Raman spectra of bacteria using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    S. W. Chiu, H. Cheng, Z. Chen, H. Wang, M. Lai, J. Wang and Y. Wang, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018, 20, 8032
    DOI: 10.1039/C7CP07103E

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