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Extracellular vesicles, exosomes and shedding vesicles in regenerative medicine – a new paradigm for tissue repair

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Abstract

Tissue regeneration by stem cells is driven by the paracrine activity of shedding vesicles and exosomes, which deliver specific cargoes to the recipient cells. Proteins, RNA, cytokines and subsequent gene expression, orchestrate the regeneration process by improving the microenvironment to promote cell survival, controlling inflammation, repairing injury and enhancing the healing process. The action of microRNA is widely accepted as an essential driver of the regenerative process through its impact on multiple downstream biological pathways, and its ability to regulate the host immune response. Here, we present an overview of the recent potential uses of exosomes for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. We also highlight the differences in composition between shedding vesicles and exosomes that depend on the various types of stem cells from which they are derived. The conditions that affect the production of exosomes in different cell types are deliberated. This review also presents the current status of candidate exosomal microRNAs for potential therapeutic use in regenerative medicine, and in applications involving widely studied organs and tissues such as heart, lung, cartilage and bone.

Graphical abstract: Extracellular vesicles, exosomes and shedding vesicles in regenerative medicine – a new paradigm for tissue repair

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Publication details

The article was received on 01 Jun 2017, accepted on 14 Nov 2017 and first published on 14 Nov 2017


Article type: Review Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7BM00479F
Citation: Biomater. Sci., 2018, Advance Article
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    Extracellular vesicles, exosomes and shedding vesicles in regenerative medicine – a new paradigm for tissue repair

    I. M. Bjørge, S. Y. Kim, J. F. Mano, B. Kalionis and W. Chrzanowski, Biomater. Sci., 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7BM00479F

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