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A novel multicommuted flow analysis strategy for the spectrophotometric determination of cadmium in water at μg L−1 levels without using a preconcentration step

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Abstract

An automated flow analysis approach for the photometric determination of cadmium in water with improved sensitivity is described. The setup comprises a flow system module with the ability to perform sample circulation using a closed-loop strategy, and a LED-based photometer. The photometric method is based on the reaction of Cd(II) with 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) in alkaline medium containing the surfactant Triton X-100. The combination of the closed-loop facility, which prevents sample dilution, with the beneficial effect of the long optical path length of the flow cell (200 mm), allows cadmium to be determined at μg L−1 levels without the need for a preconcentration step. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure was evaluated by analyzing water samples. The results show a linear response with concentrations ranging from 7.8 to 62.5 μg L−1 (r2 = 0.9989). The method has a limit of detection of 3.0 μg L−1, which is the guideline value established by the World Health Organization (WHO). A coefficient of variation of 1.6% (n = 10) for a 30.0 μg L−1 standard Cd(II) solution, a reagent consumption of 4 μg dithizone per determination, and a sampling rate of 43 determinations per hour were also achieved.

Graphical abstract: A novel multicommuted flow analysis strategy for the spectrophotometric determination of cadmium in water at μg L−1 levels without using a preconcentration step

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Publication details

The article was received on 13 Nov 2017, accepted on 10 Jan 2018 and first published on 11 Jan 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7AY02644G
Citation: Anal. Methods, 2018, Advance Article
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    A novel multicommuted flow analysis strategy for the spectrophotometric determination of cadmium in water at μg L−1 levels without using a preconcentration step

    T. da Silva Magalhães and B. F. Reis, Anal. Methods, 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7AY02644G

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