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Detection of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in Human Saliva Using an Ultra-Sensitive Nanocomposite of Graphene Nanoplatelet with Diblock-co-Polymer and Au Electrodes

Abstract

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a commonly used biomarker for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and there are numerous data available for its invasive detection in serum and whole blood. In this work, an electrochemical sensing method was devised to detect the traces of PSA in human saliva using a hybrid nanocomposite of graphene nanoplatelets with diblock co-polymer and Au electrodes (GRP-PS67-b-PAA27-Au). The pure graphitic composition on filter paper provides significantly high electrical and thermal conductivity while PS67-b-PAA27 makes an amphiphilic bridge between GRP units. The sensor utilizes binding of anti-PSA antibody with antigen-PSA to act as a resistor in a circuit providing impedance change that in turn allows for the detection and quantification of PSA in saliva samples. A miniaturized electrical impedance analyzer was interfaced with a sensor chip and the data was recorded in real-time using a Bluetooth-enabled module. This fully integrated and optimized sensing device exhibited a wide PSA range of detection from 0.1 pg/mL – 100 ng/mL (R² = 0.9627) with a lower limit of detection 40 fg/mL. The performance of the biosensor chip was validated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique with a regression coefficient of as high as 0.9402. The advantages of the newly developed saliva-PSA electrical biosensor over previously reported serum-PSA electrochemical biosensors include a faster response time (3 – 5 min) to achieve a stable electrical signal for PSA detection, high selectivity, improved sensitivity, no additional requirement of redox electrolyte for electron exchange and its excellent shelf life. The presented sensor is aimed for clinical commercialization to detect PSA in human saliva.

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Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 30 Nov 2017, accepted on 08 Jan 2018 and first published on 11 Jan 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7AN01932G
Citation: Analyst, 2018, Accepted Manuscript
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    Detection of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in Human Saliva Using an Ultra-Sensitive Nanocomposite of Graphene Nanoplatelet with Diblock-co-Polymer and Au Electrodes

    M. S. Khan, K. Dighe, Z. Wang, I. Srivastava, E. Daza, A. S. Schwartz-Duval, J. Ghannam, S. K. Mishra and D. Pan, Analyst, 2018, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C7AN01932G

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