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Antioxidant nanomaterials in advanced diagnoses and treatments of ischemia reperfusion injuries

Abstract

Organ ischemia with inadequate oxygen supply followed by reperfusion (which initiates a complex of inflammatory responses and oxidative stress) occurs in different clinical conditions and surgical procedures including stroke, myocardial infarction, limb ischemia, renal failure, organ transplantation, free-tissue-transfer, cardiopulmonary bypass, and vascular surgery. Even though pharmacological treatment protect against experimental ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, there has not been enough success for their applications in patient benefits. The main hurdles in treatment of I/R injury are the lack of diagnosis tools for understanding the complicated chains of I/R-induced signaling events, especially in acute phase after ischemia, determining the affected regions of the tissue over time, and then, targeting and safe delivery of antioxidants, drugs, peptides, genes and cells to the areas required treatment. Beside the innate antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of some nanoparticles, they show higher flexibilities in drug delivery and imaging purposes. This review highlights three main approaches on I/R injury targeting by nanoparticles; 1) antioxidant nanoparticles on reducing tissue oxidative stress, 2) targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to the ischemic regions or cells, and 3) imaging I/R injury at molecular, cellular or tissue level and monitoring its evolution using contrasts induced by nanoparticles. These approaches can also be combined to realize so called theranostics for providing simultaneous diagnosis of ischemic regions and treatments by targeted delivery.

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Publication details

The article was received on 20 Jun 2017, accepted on 06 Nov 2017 and first published on 06 Nov 2017


Article type: Review Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7TB01689A
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. B, 2017, Accepted Manuscript
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    Antioxidant nanomaterials in advanced diagnoses and treatments of ischemia reperfusion injuries

    H. Amani, R. Habibey, S. Hajmiresmail, S. Latifi, H. Pazoki-Toroudi and O. Akhavan, J. Mater. Chem. B, 2017, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C7TB01689A

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