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Issue 14, 2017
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A comparative evaluation of the activity modulation of flavo and non-flavo enzymes induced by graphene oxide

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Abstract

Graphene, and its water soluble derivative graphene oxide, has shown great promise in various biomedical applications, such as cancer therapeutics, drug delivery, etc. and in industrial applications such as enzyme immobilization, etc. Thus, modulation of the activities of different classes of enzymes by graphene materials is an important aspect in the formulation of different biological applications. We have demonstrated here how flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) moieties protect the binding site from conformational change in the presence of an inhibitor, graphene oxide, and also explore differences in the mode of interactions between flavo and non-flavo enzymes. It was shown that there was a much greater loss of activity with the non-flavo enzyme, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), of ∼74% compared to that with the flavo-enzyme, glucose oxidase (GOX), of ∼45%, in the presence of equal concentrations of GO. Furthermore, GO acts as an enzyme inhibitor and the mode of inhibition is uncompetitive for GOX and competitive for LDH. Circular dichromism measurements showed a 21% decrease in the α helix of GOX and a 31% decrease in the α helix of LDH in the presence of a given concentration of GO (0.5 mg mL−1). There was a slight change in the average emission lifetime of tryptophan in GOX in the presence of GO from 3.2 to 2.6 ns. In contrast, there was no change in the average emission lifetime of tryptophan in LDH in the presence of GO. The extents of fluorescence quenching for GOX and LDH were 39% and 70% upon addition of a certain amount of GO. The present study provides insight into the development of sensors through the immobilization of enzymes and the possible formulation of a multifunctional protein and graphene composite system for various biomedical applications such as bio-sensing, gene and drug delivery, etc.

Graphical abstract: A comparative evaluation of the activity modulation of flavo and non-flavo enzymes induced by graphene oxide

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Publication details

The article was received on 08 Jan 2017, accepted on 06 Mar 2017 and first published on 07 Mar 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7TB00083A
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. B, 2017,5, 2601-2608
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    A comparative evaluation of the activity modulation of flavo and non-flavo enzymes induced by graphene oxide

    S. Maiti, S. Kundu, C. N. Roy, D. Ghosh, T. K. Das and A. Saha, J. Mater. Chem. B, 2017, 5, 2601
    DOI: 10.1039/C7TB00083A

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