ApAGP Fabricated Silver Nanoparticles Induce Amendment of Murine Macrophage Polarization
M2 polarization of macrophages is predominant in case of tumors and some other infectious diseases for disease progression. The repolarization of M2 phenotype to M1 state may be required to cure the disease. Hence finding a material that would repolarize M2 phenotype to M1 state received strong interest. Arabinogalactan protein from Andrographis paniculata (ApAGP) has been used to prepare the silver nanoparticles–ApAGP (SNP-ApAGP) bioconjugate and characterized by UV-Vis spectra, Zeta potential analysis, FT-IR and HR-TEM images. The studies suggest that SNP-ApAGP (2.5 µg/ml) up-regulated the ROS generation, NO generation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine release (IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α & IL-6). SNP-ApAGP has also down-regulated the arginase-1 activity and anti-inflammatory cytokine release (IL-4 & IL-10) in M0, M1 and M2 polarized peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Therefore, SNP-ApAGP induces M1 polarization in M0 macrophages, enhances the pro-inflammatory activity of M1 phenotype, and also can repolarize the M2 macrophages into M1 phenotype. Hence, SNP-ApAGP could be used for treating various infectious diseases and cancers where the repolarization of M2 macrophages may be required to cure the disease.