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Carbon-TiO2 composites as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes: synergistic effect between carbon and metal oxide phases

Abstract

A series of a carbon xerogel doped with different percentages of TiO2 has been explored as a tentative via to prepare electrodes for supercapacitors. Carbon composites were obtained by an inverse emulsion method in n-heptane and after carbonization at 900 °C the metal oxide phase is well dispersed on the carbon phase, with a crystal size smaller than 4 nm and only anatase phase was detected. The increase in % TiO2 produces a decreases in the hydrophobicity of the composites which improve the wettability of the electrodes. XPS results shown that Ti3+ and Ti4+ are present on the surface of the samples and the presence of both oxidation states can improve the electron mobility in the inorganic phase. The obtained composite materials possess specific surface areas ranging from 423 to 539 m2 g-1 and a very well developed micro and mesoporosity with a total pore volume ranging from 0.361 to 0.480 cm3 g-1. The supermicropores mean size increase as the TiO2 increases whereas practically no variation was found for the ultramicroporosity size. A two-electrode symmetric supercapacitor based on the carbon xerogel-TiO2 composites exhibits a high electrochemical performance better than other similar materials from the literature, obtaining high capacitances (up to 137 F g-1 at 0.250 A g-1 for 20 % TiO2 composite), a high retention capacitance (66-80 %) at 20 A g-1 and high energy density, 20.15 Wh kg-1, at a power density of 138.11 W kg-1 in the voltage range of 0 V to 1.1 V. Sample with a combination of low hydrophobicity and an adequate micro-mesopore network with a medium content in TiO2 shows the best performance for energy storage. Floating test shows a very good cyclability of the synthetized materials.

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Publication details

The article was received on 12 Sep 2017, accepted on 27 Nov 2017 and first published on 27 Nov 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7TA08023A
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, Accepted Manuscript
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    Carbon-TiO2 composites as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes: synergistic effect between carbon and metal oxide phases

    A. E. Elmouwahidi, E. Bailón-García, J. Castelo-Quibén, A. Perez-Cadenas, F. J. Maldonado Hodar and F. Carrasco-Marin , J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C7TA08023A

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