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Issue 43, 2017
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Nitrogen–phosphorus co-doped hollow carbon microspheres with hierarchical micro–meso–macroporous shells as efficient electrodes for supercapacitors

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Abstract

Nitrogen–phosphorus co-doped hierarchical porous carbon microspheres (NPHCMs) have been prepared through combining polymerization of melamine–formaldehyde resin with co-assembly of colloidal silica nanospheres by using melamine and formaldehyde as carbon and nitrogen sources, and 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid as the catalyst and phosphorus source. After carbonization and silica removal, the obtained NPHCMs possess high surface areas of 563–720 m2 g−1 with micropores, bi-model mesopores (2.6 and 3.7 nm) and macropores (250 nm) distributed in the shell. Owing to the incorporation of abundant N (7.0–15.35%) and P (0.09–0.16%) in the carbon matrix and the interconnected micro-, meso-, and macroporous structure, the NPHCMs exhibit good capacitive performances. The 800 °C-carbonized sample shows a high specific capacitance and good rate capability (200 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 and 132 F g−1 at 20 A g−1) in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The all-solid-state electrode fabricated from the NPHCMs presents a high specific capacitance of 180 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 and long cycle life with 91% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles at 0.5 A g−1 in a polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte, suggesting its great potential for the development of high-performance energy storage devices.

Graphical abstract: Nitrogen–phosphorus co-doped hollow carbon microspheres with hierarchical micro–meso–macroporous shells as efficient electrodes for supercapacitors

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Publication details

The article was received on 24 Aug 2017, accepted on 04 Oct 2017 and first published on 06 Oct 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7TA07488C
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017,5, 22631-22640
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    Nitrogen–phosphorus co-doped hollow carbon microspheres with hierarchical micro–meso–macroporous shells as efficient electrodes for supercapacitors

    N. Zhang, F. Liu, S. Xu, F. Wang, Q. Yu and L. Liu, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, 5, 22631
    DOI: 10.1039/C7TA07488C

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