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Facile synthesis and the exploration of zinc storage mechanism of β-MnO2 nanorod with exposed (101) planes as a novel cathode material for high performance eco-friendly zinc-ion battery

Abstract

Aqueous Zn-ion batteries (ZIBs) have emerged as promising and eco-friendly next-generation energy storage systems to substitute lithium-ion batteries. Therefore, discovering new electrode materials for ZIB with high performance and unraveling their electrochemical reactions during Zn-ion insertion/extraction are of great interest. Here, we present for the first time, tunnel-type β-MnO2 nanorod with exposed (101) planes, prepared via a facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis within only 10 min, for use as high performance cathode for ZIB. In contrast to its bulk counterpart, which showed no electrochemical reactivity, the present β-MnO2 nanorod electrode exhibited a high discharge capacity of 270 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1, high rate capability (123 and 86 mAh g−1 at 528 and 1056 mA g−1, respectively), and long cycling stability (75% capacity retention with 100% Coulombic efficiency at 200 mA g−1) over 200 cycles. The Zn-ion storage mechanism of the cathode was also unraveled using in situ synchrotron, ex situ X-ray diffraction, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Our present study indicates that, Zn intercalation occured via a mixed of solid solution and conversion reactions. During initial cycles, the β-MnO2 cathode was able to maintain its structure; however, after prolonged cycles, it transformed into a spinel structure. The present results challenge the common views on β-MnO2 electrode and pave the way for further development of ZIBs as cost-effective and environmentally friendly next-generation energy storage systems.

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Publication details

The article was received on 14 Aug 2017, accepted on 06 Oct 2017 and first published on 10 Oct 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7TA07170A
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, Accepted Manuscript
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    Facile synthesis and the exploration of zinc storage mechanism of β-MnO2 nanorod with exposed (101) planes as a novel cathode material for high performance eco-friendly zinc-ion battery

    S. Islam, M. H. Alfaruqi, V. Mathew, J. Song, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. Jo, J. P. Baboo, D. P. Tung, D. Y. Putro, Y. Sun and J. Kim, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C7TA07170A

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