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Issue 39, 2017
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Synthesis of 1-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-5-nitraminotetrazole and its derivatives from 5-aminotetrazole and cyanogen azide: a promising strategy towards the development of C–N linked bistetrazolate energetic materials

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Abstract

A series of C–N linked bistetrazolate nitramino compounds, i.e., 1-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-5-nitraminotetrazole (2) and its energetic salts (3–8), were successfully prepared from readily available 5-aminotetrazole. All new energetic compounds were fully characterized by IR and NMR spectra and elemental analysis, and six of them (1, 3–7) were further determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The nitrogen contents of these energetic bistetrazolate compounds, ranging from 59.3% (3) to 74.8% (7), are much higher than those of the commonly used high explosives such as RDX (N: 37.8%), HMX (N: 37.8%) and CL-20 (N: 38.3%). And theoretical calculations by using the Gaussian 09 program package demonstrate that compounds 1–8 have high positive heats of formation, of which the heats of formation of ammonium salt 4 (3.60 kJ g−1), aminonitroguanidinium 5 (3.11 kJ g−1) and dihydrazinium salt 7 (3.25 kJ g−1) are approximately eight times higher than those of RDX (0.39 kJ g−1) and HMX (0.39 kJ g−1), and four times higher than that of CL-20 (0.83 kJ g−1). The high nitrogen contents and high heats of formation have endowed these energetic compounds with prominent detonation performance. It is noteworthy that compound 7 exhibits an excellent calculated detonation velocity of 9822 m s−1 superior to that of CL-20 (9730 m s−1), while the impact and friction sensitivities of 7 (IS = 8 J, FS = 192 N) are comparable to those of HMX (IS = 7 J, FS = 112 N). The good detonation properties with moderate sensitivities demonstrate that compound 7 is a promising candidate for application as a high-performance energetic material.

Graphical abstract: Synthesis of 1-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-5-nitraminotetrazole and its derivatives from 5-aminotetrazole and cyanogen azide: a promising strategy towards the development of C–N linked bistetrazolate energetic materials

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Publication details

The article was received on 07 Jul 2017, accepted on 12 Sep 2017 and first published on 12 Sep 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7TA05905A
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017,5, 20867-20873
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    Synthesis of 1-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-5-nitraminotetrazole and its derivatives from 5-aminotetrazole and cyanogen azide: a promising strategy towards the development of C–N linked bistetrazolate energetic materials

    B. Wang, X. Qi, W. Zhang, K. Wang, W. Li and Q. Zhang, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, 5, 20867
    DOI: 10.1039/C7TA05905A

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