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Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)-based photocatalysts for solar hydrogen generation: recent advances and future development directions

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Abstract

Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is a metal-free conjugated polymer constructed from two-dimensional sheets with a bandgap energy of 2.7 eV, which makes it an applicable and efficient visible-active photocatalyst for H2 production. In the present study, the basic concepts and principles of photocatalytic water splitting have been discussed, and a guide for the selection of appropriate photocatalysts, focusing on the g-C3N4 nanomaterials, has been proposed. Our approach is mainly concentrated on evaluating two factors, namely the solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion and apparent quantum yield (AQY) for different photocatalysts, to provide an in-depth analysis and a framework for solar H2 production for future research directions. We compared hydrogen production from an economic viewpoint and performance of g-C3N4 nanomaterials through photochemical (PC) and photoelectrochemical (PEC) methods. Various approaches for efficient solar H2 generation over a modified g-C3N4 surface with the possibility for commercialization have been introduced. The promising approaches for the effective utilization of g-C3N4 are categorized into three proposed methods: electronic structure tuning, hybrid and nanocomposite fabrication, and finally geometric structure manipulation. Finally, we compared the recent findings and key achievements for g-C3N4-based photocatalysts modified based on the abovementioned three approaches to propose two possible scenarios for their use in the future development of efficient solar H2 generation.

Graphical abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)-based photocatalysts for solar hydrogen generation: recent advances and future development directions

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Publication details

The article was received on 13 Jun 2017, accepted on 14 Oct 2017 and first published on 14 Oct 2017


Article type: Review Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7TA05131J
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, Advance Article
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    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)-based photocatalysts for solar hydrogen generation: recent advances and future development directions

    A. Naseri, M. Samadi, A. Pourjavadi, A. Z. Moshfegh and S. Ramakrishna, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7TA05131J

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