Hierarchically 3D porous films electrochemically constructed on gas-liquid-solid three-phase interface for energy application
Hierarchically porous films as catalysts or supports are the fascinating electrode materials for the electrochemical conversion and storage of energy due to short transportation path of electron and ion. A novel and feasible method to construct 3D porous films is developed by direct electrodeposition on gas-liquid-solid (GLS) three-phase interface. The formation mechanism of porous structure is discussed based on bubble behavior and electrocrystallization. The progresses toward the preparation of porous metals/alloys on cathode and metal oxides/polymers on anode are reviewed. The surface decorations of porous metal films by noble metals or non-metal compounds are summarized. The promising energy applications of porous films are highlighted.