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Cathode Materials for Lithium−Sulfur Batteries: A Practical Perspective

Abstract

The most important challenge in the practical development of lithium-sulfur (Li−S) batteries is finding the suitable cathode materials. Due to the complexity of this system, various factors have been investigated during the last years, but still, the roadmap for designing the best cathode candidates is not vivid. This review attempts to create a better picture of the cathode process to pave the path for developing more practical cathode materials. The most promising candidate as the host cathode material is porous carbon nanomaterials, which are highly conductive and lightweight while having the capability of fabricating the freestanding electrodes. In this case, there is no need for a binder and current collector, and thus, a significantly higher energy density can be expected. Despite the good performance of these carbon-based sulfur cathodes, the presence of some additives anchoring the sulfur molecules to the electrode backbone seems necessary for the practical performance. Metal oxides and sulfides are among the best options, as they act as mediators in the electrochemical redox system of Li/S. Despite their similarities, these additives might mediate in the battery system via entirely different mechanisms. In addition to carbon nanomaterials, other porous materials such as metal-organic frameworks can also provide the cage-like architecture for the construction of sulfur cathode.

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Publication details

The article was received on 23 Jan 2017, accepted on 19 Jun 2017 and first published on 20 Jun 2017


Article type: Review Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7TA00799J
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, Accepted Manuscript
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    Cathode Materials for Lithium−Sulfur Batteries: A Practical Perspective

    A. Eftekhari and D. Kim, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C7TA00799J

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