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Higher Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Using Additives of LiI, LiTFSI and BMImI in the PbI2 Precursor

Abstract

The efficiencies of perovskite solar cells have been significantly increased to 18%, 17.01% and 15.6% for the cells containing the additives BMImI, LiI and LiTFSI in the PbI2 precursor solutions, respectively, from 11.3% for the devices without any additives. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and atomic force microscope (AFM) topography images exhibited that the perovskite films are completely formed from precursors, have increased perovskite crystallization and larger grain size after adding these additives. This was attributed to polar additives which acted as polar lewis bases that donate electrons to the lewis acid Pb2+ in the PbI2. This produced the Lewis base adduct of PbI2, which increased the solubility of PbI2 and enhanced its reaction with methylamine iodide (MAI). Thus the amount of PbI2 residue was reduced and the perovskite crystallinity was enhanced. The doping with BMImI has yielded the highest device efficiency improvement to 18%. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) and current sensing (CS) - AFM are in good agreement with external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements and proved the great enhancement in short circuit current density (Jsc) as a result of doping. Transient photovoltage measurement results exhibited longer charge carrier lifetimes by adding additives than those without additives. This matches well with the fill factor (FF) and open circuit voltage (Voc), which were obtained from the J-V measurements.

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Publication details

The article was accepted on 14 Sep 2017 and first published on 03 Oct 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7SE00435D
Citation: Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2017, Accepted Manuscript
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    Higher Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Using Additives of LiI, LiTFSI and BMImI in the PbI2 Precursor

    S. mabrouk, B. Bahrami, A. Gurung, N. Adhikari, A. Dubey, S. Yang and Q. Qiao, Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2017, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C7SE00435D

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