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Solvent selection and design for CO2 capture – how we might have been missing the point

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Abstract

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a vital technology for the cost-effective mitigation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, a key obstacle to its deployment on a large scale remains its cost – both capital and operating costs. In this context, the development of improved sorbents is a key research priority. Consequently, there is a vast global effort to develop new materials for this purpose, with literally thousands of new materials having been proposed since the beginning of the millennium. One common element of these contributions is that they focus on the equilibrium capacity of the material to absorb CO2 and rarely, if ever, other key factors such as transport properties. To date, the majority of this effort has cost significant amounts of time and resources and has almost exclusively focused on developing sorbents with increased CO2 capacity and/or reduced heat of regeneration. Given that sorbent regeneration largely dictates operational cost, this would, on the surface, appear rational. However, it is vital to recall that the cost structure of $ per MWh of electricity generated is composed of contributions from both capital and operational costs. Consequently, this single-minded focus on equilibrium CO2 capacity and heat of regeneration excludes the contribution of transport and kinetic properties which determine the equipment size and thus the capital cost. Therefore, in order to develop sorbents which will result in a non-negligible cost reduction, it is essential to move beyond equilibrium-based metrics of sorbent performance. In this paper, we present a new methodological approach for sorbent screening which explicitly includes rate-based phenomena. Our approach uses both monetised and non-monetised performance indicators. Our results suggest that whilst equilibrium CO2 capacity is a key determinant of process performance, transport properties (e.g., viscosity) and other thermophysical properties (e.g., heat capacity) have a significant effect on the capital cost, and thus on the price of the carbon captured. The key contribution of this work is the identification of the minimum set of thermophysical and kinetic parameters which must be reported in order to justify the claim of adequacy for a new sorbent for CO2 capture in particular and gas separations in general.

Graphical abstract: Solvent selection and design for CO2 capture – how we might have been missing the point

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Publication details

The article was received on 16 Aug 2017, accepted on 21 Aug 2017 and first published on 01 Nov 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7SE00404D
Citation: Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2017, Advance Article
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
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    Solvent selection and design for CO2 capture – how we might have been missing the point

    M. T. Mota-Martinez, J. P. Hallett and N. Mac Dowell, Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2017, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7SE00404D

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