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Issue 7, 2017
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3-D vertically aligned few layer graphene – partially reduced graphene oxide/sulfur electrodes for high performance lithium–sulfur batteries

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Abstract

3-D vertically aligned few-layered graphene (FLGs) nanoflakes synthesised using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition are melt-impregnated with partially reduced graphene oxide-sulfur (PrGO-S) nanocomposites for use in lithium–sulfur batteries. The aligned structure and the presence of interconnected micro voids/channels in the 3-D FLG/PrGO-S electrodes serves as template not only for the high sulfur loading (up to 80 wt%, areal loading of 1.2 mg cm−2) but also compensates for the volume changes occurring during charge–discharge cycles. The inter-connectivity of the electrode system further facilitates fast electronic and ionic transport pathways. Consequently, the binder-free 3-D FLG/PrGO-S electrodes display a high first-cycle capacity (1320 mA h g−1 at C/20), along with excellent rate capability of ∼830 mA h g−1 and 700 mA h g−1 at 2C and 5C rates, respectively. The residual functional groups of PrGO (–OH, –C–O–C– and –COOH) facilitate fast and reversible capture of Li+ ions while confining the polysulfide shuttles, thus, contributing to excellent cycling capability and retention capacity. The 3D electrodes demonstrate excellent capacity retention of ∼80% (1040 mA h g−1 at C/10) over 350 charge–discharge cycles. Comparatively, the 2-D planar PrGO-S electrodes displayed poor electronic conductivity and can only provide 560 mA h g−1 after 150 cycles, thereby further highlighting the vital role of the electrode morphology in improving the electrochemical performance of Li–S batteries.

Graphical abstract: 3-D vertically aligned few layer graphene – partially reduced graphene oxide/sulfur electrodes for high performance lithium–sulfur batteries

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Publication details

The article was received on 11 Apr 2017, accepted on 07 Jul 2017 and first published on 13 Jul 2017


Article type: Communication
DOI: 10.1039/C7SE00195A
Citation: Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2017,1, 1516-1523
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    3-D vertically aligned few layer graphene – partially reduced graphene oxide/sulfur electrodes for high performance lithium–sulfur batteries

    D. P. Singh, N. Soin, S. Sharma, S. Basak, S. Sachdeva, S. S. Roy, H. W. Zanderbergen, J. A. McLaughlin, M. Huijben and M. Wagemaker, Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2017, 1, 1516
    DOI: 10.1039/C7SE00195A

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