Mass-producible 2D-MoSe2 bulk modified screen-printed electrodes provide significant electrocatalytic performances towards the hydrogen evolution reaction
We demonstrate a facile, low cost and reproducible methodology for the production of electrocatalytic 2D-MoSe2 incorporated/bulk modified screen-printed electrodes (MoSe2-SPEs). The MoSe2-SPEs outperform traditional carbon based electrodes, in terms of their electrochemical activity, towards the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). The electrocatalytic behaviour towards the HER of the 2D-MoSe2 within the fabricated electrodes is found to be mass dependent, with an optimal mass ratio of 10% 2D-MoSe2 to 90% carbon ink. MoSe2-SPEs with this optimised ratio exhibit a HER onset, Tafel value and a turn over frequency of ca. −460 mV (vs. SCE), 47 mV dec−1 and 1.48 respectively. These values far exceed the HER performance of graphite (unmodified) SPEs, that exhibit a greater electronegative HER onset and Tafel value of ca. −880 mV and 120 mV dec−1 respectively. It is clear that impregnation of 2D-MoSe2 into the MoSe2-SPEs bulk ink/structure significantly increases the performance of SPEs with respect to their electrocatalytic activity towards the HER. When compared to SPEs that have been modified via a drop-casting technique, the fabricated MoSe2-SPEs exhibit excellent cycling stability. After 1000 repeat scans, a 10% modified MoSe2-SPE displayed no change in its HER onset potential of −450 mV (vs. SCE) and an increase of 31.6% in achievable current density. Conversely, a SPE modified via drop-casting with 400 mg cm−2 of 2D-MoSe2 maintained its HER onset potential of −480 mV (vs. SCE), however exhibited a 27.4% decrease in its achievable current density after 1000 scans. In addition to the clear performance benefits, the production of MoSe2-SPEs mitigates the need to post hoc modify an electrode via the drop-casting technique. We anticipate that this facile production method will serve as a powerful tool for future studies seeking to utilise 2D materials in order to mass-produce SPEs/surfaces with unique electrochemical properties whilst providing substantial stability improvements over the traditionally utilised technique of drop-casting.