Jump to main content
Jump to site search


Laboratory-scale photoredox catalysis using hydrated electrons sustainably generated with a single green laser

Author affiliations

Abstract

The ruthenium-tris-bipyridyl dication as catalyst combined with the ascorbate dianion as bioavailable sacrificial donor provides the first regenerative source of hydrated electrons for chemical syntheses on millimolar scales. This electron generator is operated simply by illumination with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) running at its normal repetition rate. Much more detailed information than by product studies alone was obtained by photokinetical characterization from submicroseconds (time-resolved laser flash photolysis) up to one hour (preparative photolysis). The experiments on short timescales established a reaction mechanism more complex than previously thought, and proved the catalytic action by unchanged concentration traces of the key transients over a number of flashes so large that the accumulated electron total surpassed the catalyst concentration many times. Preparative photolyses revealed that the sacrificial donor greatly enhances the catalyst stability through quenching the initial metal-to-ligand charge-transfer state before destructive dd states can be populated from it, such that the efficiency of this electron generator is no longer limited by catalyst decomposition but by electron scavenging by the accumulating oxidation products of the ascorbate. Applications covered dechlorinations of selected aliphatic and aromatic chlorides and the reduction of a model ketone. All these substrates are impervious to photoredox catalysts exhibiting lower reducing power than the hydrated electron, but the combination of an extremely negative standard potential and a long unquenched life allowed turnover numbers up to 1400 with our method.

Graphical abstract: Laboratory-scale photoredox catalysis using hydrated electrons sustainably generated with a single green laser

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 11 Aug 2017, accepted on 12 Sep 2017 and first published on 12 Sep 2017


Article type: Edge Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7SC03514D
Citation: Chem. Sci., 2017, Advance Article
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY-NC license
  •   Request permissions

    Laboratory-scale photoredox catalysis using hydrated electrons sustainably generated with a single green laser

    R. Naumann, C. Kerzig and M. Goez, Chem. Sci., 2017, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7SC03514D

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes.

    Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

    • For reproduction of material from NJC:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
      [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
    • For reproduction of material from PPS:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements