Sequential water molecule binding enthalpies for aqueous nanodrops containing a mono-, di- or trivalent ion and between 20 and 500 water molecules
Sequential water molecule binding enthalpies, ΔHn,n−1, are important for a detailed understanding of competitive interactions between ions, water and solute molecules, and how these interactions affect physical properties of ion-containing nanodrops that are important in aerosol chemistry. Water molecule binding enthalpies have been measured for small clusters of many different ions, but these values for ion-containing nanodrops containing more than 20 water molecules are scarce. Here, ΔHn,n−1 values are deduced from high-precision ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) measurements as a function of ion identity, charge state and cluster size between 20–500 water molecules and for ions with +1, +2 and +3 charges. The ΔHn,n−1 values are obtained from the number of water molecules lost upon photoexcitation at a known wavelength, and modeling of the release of energy into the translational, rotational and vibrational motions of the products. The ΔHn,n−1 values range from 36.82 to 50.21 kJ mol−1. For clusters containing more than ∼250 water molecules, the binding enthalpies are between the bulk heat of vaporization (44.8 kJ mol−1) and the sublimation enthalpy of bulk ice (51.0 kJ mol−1). These values depend on ion charge state for clusters with fewer than 150 water molecules, but there is a negligible dependence at larger size. There is a minimum in the ΔHn,n−1 values that depends on the cluster size and ion charge state, which can be attributed to the competing effects of ion solvation and surface energy. The experimental ΔHn,n−1 values can be fit to the Thomson liquid drop model (TLDM) using bulk ice parameters. By optimizing the surface tension and temperature change of the logarithmic partial pressure for the TLDM, the experimental sequential water molecule binding enthalpies can be fit with an accuracy of ±3.3 kJ mol−1 over the entire range of cluster sizes.