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High-quality organohalide lead perovskite films fabricated by layer-by-layer alternating vacuum deposition for high efficiency photovoltaics

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Abstract

Herein, we present, for the first time, a new procedure to fabricate stoichiometric, uniform, and highly crystalline lead perovskite thin films based on a multi-step vapor deposition technique. In this process, the perovskite film is prepared by layer-by-layer alternating (LBLA) vacuum deposition of PbI2 and methylammounium iodide (MAI). In comparison to the common two-step deposition (TSD) approach, the novel LBLA evaporation process yields thin films with much improved uniformity in terms of composition, morphology, and surface quality. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry show that the I/Pb ratio of the LBLA film is 2.92 ± 0.03, which indicates a more precise stoichiometric composition of organometallics as compared with TSD with an I/Pb ratio of 2.76 ± 0.06. X-ray diffraction and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements also demonstrate higher crystallinity and a longer lifetime for the LBLA films, as compared with the films fabricated by the conventional TSD method. Atomic force microscopy indicates 36% improvement in the surface smoothness as well. The better film quality leads to ∼20% improved power conversion efficiency in bulk heterojunction solar devices, primarily owing to a higher fill factor and current density.

Graphical abstract: High-quality organohalide lead perovskite films fabricated by layer-by-layer alternating vacuum deposition for high efficiency photovoltaics

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Publication details

The article was received on 28 Dec 2016, accepted on 27 Jan 2017 and first published on 06 Feb 2017


Article type: Research Article
DOI: 10.1039/C6QM00379F
Citation: Mater. Chem. Front., 2017, Advance Article
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    High-quality organohalide lead perovskite films fabricated by layer-by-layer alternating vacuum deposition for high efficiency photovoltaics

    M. M. Tavakoli, A. Simchi, X. Mo and Z. Fan, Mater. Chem. Front., 2017, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C6QM00379F

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