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Environmentally friendly, aqueous processed ZnO as an efficient electron transport layer for low temperature processed metal–halide perovskite photovoltaics

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Abstract

Here we report the incorporation of ZnO electron transport layers (ETLs), deposited using a remarkably simple water-based processing route, for use in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI, CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite solar cells. The influence of ZnO processing temperature on the thermal stability and surface morphology of the perovskite films is studied in detail. We find that operational devices are achieved over the entire ZnO processing temperatures range investigated (100–450 °C) – however those prepared at 100 °C are significantly affected by current–voltage hysteresis. We find that the insertion of a thin phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer between the ZnO and the MAPI significantly reduces current–voltage (JV) hysteresis. Additionally we determine that the thermal stability of the MAPI improves when PCBM is inserted as an interface modifier. The fabrication of the PCBM modified ZnO at 100 °C enables the formation of low-temperature processed, thermally stable normal architecture cells with negligible hysteresis.

Graphical abstract: Environmentally friendly, aqueous processed ZnO as an efficient electron transport layer for low temperature processed metal–halide perovskite photovoltaics

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Publication details

The article was received on 26 Oct 2017, accepted on 10 Nov 2017 and first published on 10 Nov 2017


Article type: Research Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7QI00667E
Citation: Inorg. Chem. Front., 2018, Advance Article
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    Environmentally friendly, aqueous processed ZnO as an efficient electron transport layer for low temperature processed metal–halide perovskite photovoltaics

    J. Zhang, M. Morbidoni, K. Huang, S. Feng and M. A. McLachlan, Inorg. Chem. Front., 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7QI00667E

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