Jump to main content
Jump to site search


Synthesis of Sustainable Guar gum-g-(Acrylic Acid-co-Acrylamide-co-3-Acrylamido Propanoic Acid) Interpenetrating Polymer Network via in situ Attachment of 3-Acrylamido Propanoic Acid for Analyzing Superadsorption Mechanism of Pb(II)/Cd(II)/Cu(II) and Dyes: Comparative Studies of Microstructures

Abstract

For the first time, guar gum-g-(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide-co-3-acrylamido propanoic acid) (GGAAAMAPA), a smart environment-friendly and sustainable interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel, acquiring unprecedented thermomechanical/physicochemical properties and excellent recyclability, has been synthesized by the grafting of guar gum (GG) and in situ adjunct allocation of 3-acrylamido propanoic acid (APA) during solution polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AM), using N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and potassium persulfate (PPS)-sodium bisulfite (SBS) as crosslinker and redox pair of initiators, respectively, through systematic multistage optimization of constituents and temperature of reaction, for comprehensive understanding of mere/synergistic superadsorption mechanism during recycling of hazardous dyes, like 2,8-dimethyl-3,7-diamino-phenazine, (i.e. safranine, SF), 3,7-bis(dimethylamino)-phenothiazin-5-ium chloride (i.e. methylene blue, MB) and sodium 4{[4(dimethylamino)phenyl]diazenyl}benzene-1-sulfonate (i.e. methyl orange, MO), along with the adsorptive exclusion of metal ions, i.e. M(II), like Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II). The unambiguous in situ addition of APA, grafting of GG into the AA-co-AM-co-APA (AAAMAPA) matrix and superadsorption mechanism have systematically been determined by extensive analyses of FTIR, 1H-/13C-NMR, O1s-/N1s-/C1s-/Pb4f7/2,5/2-/Cd3d5/2,3/2- and Cu2p3/2,1/2-XPS, TGA, DSC, XRD, FESEM, EDX, storage/loss moduli and supported by computational measurements via density functional theory (DFT), along with the measurements of %gel content (%GC), pH at point of zero charge (pHPZC), %graft ratio (%GR) and network parameters of hydrogels. The prevalence of ionic (I) and variegated interactions, like monodentate (M), bidentate bridging (BB) and bidentate chelating (BC), between GGAAAMAPA and M(II), have also been rationalized by FTIR and via fitting of kinetics data to the pseudosecond order model and by the measurements of activation energies of adsorption. The individual/interactive effects of cationic and/or anionic dyes have rationally been determined via extensive UV-Vis analyses at 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 mole ratios of dyes and pHi =2/9, interpreted through the appearance of metachromic effect, dye-aggregates, π-π stacking interaction, diprotonated MO etc. The BET and Langmuir isotherms have been fitted the best to MB and SF/Cd(II)/Cu(II)/Pb(II), respectively. Thermodynamically spontaneous chemisorption processes have showed the maximum adsorption capacities (ACs) of 27.06, 39.35, 40.55, 39.42, 41.98 mg g–1 for MB, SF, Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively, at 303 K, adsorbent dose = 0.025 g and initial concentration of dyes/M(II) = 30 ppm.

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 12 Sep 2017, accepted on 12 Oct 2017 and first published on 13 Oct 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7PY01564J
Citation: Polym. Chem., 2017, Accepted Manuscript
  •   Request permissions

    Synthesis of Sustainable Guar gum-g-(Acrylic Acid-co-Acrylamide-co-3-Acrylamido Propanoic Acid) Interpenetrating Polymer Network via in situ Attachment of 3-Acrylamido Propanoic Acid for Analyzing Superadsorption Mechanism of Pb(II)/Cd(II)/Cu(II) and Dyes: Comparative Studies of Microstructures

    N. R. Singha, M. Mahapatra, M. Karmakar, A. Dutta, H. Mondal and P. K. Chattopadhyay, Polym. Chem., 2017, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C7PY01564J

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements