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Robust triplet–triplet annihilation photon upconversion by efficient oxygen scavenging

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Abstract

We hereby present a simple method for reducing the effect of oxygen quenching in Triplet–Triplet Annihilation Upconversion (TTA-UC) systems. A number of commercially available thioethers and one thiol have been tested as singlet oxygen scavengers. Recording of the upconverted emission from a well-studied PdOEP (sensitizer)–DPA (annihilator/emitter) couple has been made over time with steady-state excitation capturing the steady-state kinetics of the TTA-UC process as the solubilized oxygen is depleted by reaction with the scavengers. The efficiency of the TTA-UC process is compared between chemical oxygen scavenging and mechanical removal by inert gas purging or the freeze–pump–thaw method. Selected methods are combined to explore the highest attainable TTA-UC quantum yield. A maximum TTA-UC quantum yield of 21% with the shortest UC onset time was obtained with dimethylthiomethane (DMTM) as the scavenger in an air-saturated solvent and slightly higher quantum yields were obtained in combination with other deoxygenation techniques. Samples containing DMTM displayed little decrease in the quantum yield over four hours of continuous high intensity irradiation, which illustrates the robustness of applying chemical oxygen removal in TTA-UC instead of more time-consuming mechanical processes that usually require specialized equipment.

Graphical abstract: Robust triplet–triplet annihilation photon upconversion by efficient oxygen scavenging

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Publication details

The article was received on 02 Jun 2017, accepted on 04 Jul 2017 and first published on 05 Jul 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7PP00201G
Citation: Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2017, Advance Article
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    Robust triplet–triplet annihilation photon upconversion by efficient oxygen scavenging

    D. Dzebo, K. Moth-Poulsen and B. Albinsson, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2017, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7PP00201G

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