High performance multifunctional green Co3O4 spinel nanoparticles: photodegradation of textile dye effluents, catalytic hydrogenation of nitro-aromatics and antibacterial potential
Tricobalt tetraoxide (Co3O4), a spinel-structured nanoparticle which possesses mixed oxidation states, has been synthesized via a Punica granatum (P. granatum, pomegranate) seed extract-mediated green reaction and has been investigated for its superior catalytic activity in three applications, which include (i) photodegradation of textile dye effluents (TDE) collected from the dyeing industry, Tiruppur, Tamil Nadu, India, (ii) catalytic hydrogenation of nitro-aromatic pollutants such as 4-nitrophenol and 4-nitroaniline, and (iii) antibacterial potential in biomedical applications. Prior to the application studies, the synthesized Co3O4 spinel nanoparticles (Co3O4-NPs) were characterized by well-known established techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies. We have also discussed the probable mechanism and kinetic studies of the catalytic activity of the Co3O4-NPs. Finally, we concluded that the design and development of novel, economic and green synthesis-mediated catalysts such as Co3O4-NPs can exhibit efficient catalytic activity in diverse fields, which is necessary for environmental remediation.