Spatial organization of multi-enzyme biocatalytic cascades
Industrial biocatalysis is an economically attractive option for the production of valuable chemicals. Our repertoire of cheap building blocks and commodity target molecules is vastly enhanced by multi-enzyme biocatalytic cascades. In order to achieve suitable titers in complex novel biocatalytic schemes, spatial organization may become necessary to overcome barriers caused by slow or inhibited enzymes as well as instability of biocatalysts. A number of spatial organization strategies are currently available, which could be integrated in the design of complex cascades. These include fusion proteins, immobilization on solid supports, multi-dimensional scaffolding, and encapsulation within vessels. This review article highlights recent advances in cascade biocatalysis, discusses the role of spatial organization in reaction kinetics, and presents some of the currently employed strategies for spatial organization of multi-enzyme cascades.