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Nano-confinement-driven enhanced magnetic relaxivity of SPIONs for targeted tumor bioimaging

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Abstract

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are highly biocompatible and have a versatile synthetic technique based on coprecipitation, reduction-precipitation, and hydrothermal methods, where Fe3+ and Fe2+ react in aqueous solutions; both these ions are present in our body and have clear metabolic pathways; therefore, they have attracted extensive research interest and development in the field of diagnostic imaging and therapy. However, most SPION-based clinical diagnostic contrast agents are discontinued due to severe pain, low transverse magnetic relaxivity range of 80–180 mM−1 s−1, shorter circulation half-life, and lack of disease specificity. Therefore, in this study, we engineered a bone cancer-targeted hybrid nanoconstruct (HNC) with a high transverse magnetic relaxivity of 625 mM−1 s−1, which was significantly higher than that of clinical contrast agents. The engineered HNC is peripherally decorated with a bone-seeking agent, alendronic acid-conjugated phospholipid, exhibiting a hydrodynamic size of 80 nm with a negative surface potential, −35 mV. The interior skeleton of the HNC is composed of biodegradable and biocompatible poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), in which 5 nm SPIONs are confined. We have successfully tuned the distance between the confined SPIONs from 0.5 to 4 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and magnetic resonance image (MRI) phantoms. This cluster confinement dramatically enhances magnetic relaxivity possibly due to the increase in net local magnetization due to proximal field inhomogeneity. In an in vitro examination, 80% of HNC is found to bind with hydroxyapatite (HAp), which when characterized by TEM shows a painting of SPIONs over a HAp crystal. HNC is found to accumulate in mouse osteosarcoma tumor (K7M2 tumor model); both MRI and histological examination of the tumor show the potential of HNC as targeting agents for diagnosis of tumor in the bone.

Graphical abstract: Nano-confinement-driven enhanced magnetic relaxivity of SPIONs for targeted tumor bioimaging

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Publication details

The article was received on 20 Sep 2017, accepted on 21 Nov 2017 and first published on 22 Nov 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7NR07035G
Citation: Nanoscale, 2018, Advance Article
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    Nano-confinement-driven enhanced magnetic relaxivity of SPIONs for targeted tumor bioimaging

    T. D. T. Nguyen, A. Pitchaimani, C. Ferrel, R. Thakkar and S. Aryal, Nanoscale, 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7NR07035G

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