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Power-dependent upconversion quantum yield of NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nano- and micrometer-sized particles – Measurements and simulations

Abstract

Photophysical studies of nonlinear lanthanide-doped photon upconverting nanoparticles (UCNP) increasingly used in biophotonics and photovoltaics require absolute measurements of excitation power density (P)-dependent upconversion luminescence (UCL) and luminescence quantum yields (ΦUC) for quantifying material performance, UCL deactivation pathways, and possible enhancement factors. We present here the P-dependence of UCL spectra, ΦUC , and slope factors of the different emission bands of representative 25 nm-sized oleate-capped β-NaYF4:Yb3+: 17 %, Er3+: 3% UCNP dispersed in toluene and as powder as well as ΦUC of 3 µm-sized upconversion particles (UCμP), all measured with a newly designed integrating sphere setup, enabling controlled variation of P over four orders of magnitude. This includes quantifying the influence of the beam shape on measured ΦUC and comparison of experimental ΦUC with simulations utilizing the balancing power density model of the Andersson-Engels group and simulated ΦUC of UCμP from the Berry group, underpinned by closely matching decay kinetics of our UC material. We obtained a maximum ΦUC of 10.5 % for UCµP and ΦUC of 0.6 % and 2.1 % for dispersed and solid UCNPs, respectively. Our results suggest an overestimation of the contribution of the purple and an underestimation of that of the red emission of β-NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+: microparticles by the simulations of the Berry group. Moreover, our measurements can be used as guideline to absolute determinations of UCL and ΦUC.

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Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 06 Apr 2017, accepted on 12 Jun 2017 and first published on 13 Jun 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7NR02449E
Citation: Nanoscale, 2017, Accepted Manuscript
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    Power-dependent upconversion quantum yield of NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nano- and micrometer-sized particles – Measurements and simulations

    M. Kaiser, C. Würth, M. Kraft, I. Hyppänen, T. Soukka and U. Resch-Genger, Nanoscale, 2017, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C7NR02449E

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