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Understanding the effects of 3D porous architecture on promoting lithium or sodium intercalation in Iodine/C Cathode synthesized via a biochemistry-enabled strategy

Abstract

Rechargeable sodium-iodine and lithium-iodine batteries have been demonstrated to be promising and scalable energy- storage devices, but their developments are seriously inhibted by such challenges as inferior stability and poor kinetics of iodine. Anchoring iodine to 3D porous carbon is an effective strategy to overcome these defects, however, both external architecture and internal microstructure of 3D porous carbon hosts can greatly affect the ion intercalation of iodine/C electrodes. To realize the full potential of iodine electrode, a biochemistry-enabled route is developed to enable the controllable design of different 3D porous architectures, from hollow microsphere to 3D foam, for iodine/C cathodes. Two kinds of spores with spherical cells, i.e. Cibotium Barometz (C. Barometz) and Oetes Sinesis (O. Sinesis), are employed as bio-precursors. By carefully controlling the degree of damage on the bio-precursors, different targeted carbon hosts are fabricated. Systematic studies are carried out to clarify the structural effects on modifying the ion-intercalation capabilities of iodine/C cathodes in lithium-iodine and sodium-iodine batteries. Our results demonstrate the profound performance improvements of both 3D bio-foam and hollow sphere, because their hierarchically porous structures can strongly immobilize iodine. Notably, the 3D bio-foam based iodine composites achieve faster ion kinetics and better high rate capability than the hollow sphere based ones. This is atrributed to their higher micro/mesopore volume, larger surface area and better packing density, which provide the highly efficient adsorption of iodine species. By virtue of the thinnest slices, the iodine/bio-foam derived from C. Barometz spore achieves the best high-rate long-term cycing capability, which retains 94% and 91% of the capacities in lithium-iodine and sodium-iodine batteries after 500 cycles, respectively. With the help of biochemistry-assisted technique, our work provides a much-needed fundametal insight for the rational design of 3D porous iodine/C composite, which will promote a significant research direction on the practical application of the lithium/sodium-iodine batteries.

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Publication details

The article was received on 01 Apr 2017, accepted on 06 Jun 2017 and first published on 08 Jun 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7NR02311A
Citation: Nanoscale, 2017, Accepted Manuscript
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    Understanding the effects of 3D porous architecture on promoting lithium or sodium intercalation in Iodine/C Cathode synthesized via a biochemistry-enabled strategy

    H. wang, G. zhang, L. ke, B. liu, S. Zhang and C. Deng, Nanoscale, 2017, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C7NR02311A

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