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Three-dimensional interpenetrating mesoporous carbon confining SnO2 particles for superior sodiation/desodiation properties

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Abstract

Nanosized SnO2 particles (∼2 nm in diameter) are embedded in ordered mesoporous CMK-8 carbon with unique three-dimensional interconnected pore channels and used as a sodium-ion battery (NIB) anode. Due to the CMK-8 confinement effects, the growth of SnO2 is suppressed during synthesis, leading to high material electroactivity. The CMK-8 not only serves as an electronic conducting pathway, but also creates interpenetrating tunnels, which guarantee electrolyte accessibility and thus Na+ transport throughout the electrode. Moreover, the change in the SnO2 volume during sodiation/desodiation can be accommodated by the CMK-8 framework. With a high tap density of ∼1000 mg cm−3 (vs. ∼800 mg cm−3 for the conventional NIB anode, hard carbon), the SnO2/CMK-8 anode shows a high reversible capacity of 800 mA h g−1 and excellent rate capability, delivering 330 mA h g−1 in ∼10 min. The electrode charge storage mechanism is examined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We confirm that CMK-8 incorporation can effectively promote the SnO2–Sn conversion reaction and Sn–Na alloying reaction, which are known to be thermodynamically/kinetically difficult, increasing the electrode charge–discharge performance.

Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional interpenetrating mesoporous carbon confining SnO2 particles for superior sodiation/desodiation properties

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Publication details

The article was received on 30 Mar 2017, accepted on 19 May 2017 and first published on 23 May 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7NR02260C
Citation: Nanoscale, 2017, Advance Article
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    Three-dimensional interpenetrating mesoporous carbon confining SnO2 particles for superior sodiation/desodiation properties

    J. Patra, P. C. Rath, C. Yang, D. Saikia, H. Kao and J. Chang, Nanoscale, 2017, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7NR02260C

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