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Up-conversion process its versatile biological applications and bio-safety

Abstract

Lanthanide-doped photon upconverting nanomaterials are evolving as a new rank of imaging contrast agents, offering abundant unparalleled prospects in the dominion of biomedical applications. Owing to their capability to convert long wavelength near-infrared excitation radiation into shorter-wavelength emissions, these nanomaterials are competent to yield properties of low imaging background, large anti-Stokes shift, over and above high optical penetration depth of light for deep tissue optical imaging or light-activated drug release and therapy. Such materials bestow potential for copious advantages in analytical applications in contrast to molecular fluorophores and quantum dots. The procedure of using IR radiation as an excitation foundation diminishes autofluorescence and scattering of excitation radiation, which leads to a reduction of background in optical experiments. The upconverting nanocrystals render exceptional photostability and are constituted of materials that are not predominantly toxic to biological organisms. Excitation at long wavelengths also minimizes damage to biological materials. In this detailed review, various mechanisms in charge for the upconversion process,and ways and means that are castoff to synthesize and decorate upconverting nanoparticles are brought up to point out by what means absorption and emission can be tuned. Up-to-date hearsays concerning the cellular internalization, biodistribution, excretion, cytotoxicity and in vivo toxic effects of UCNPs are look over. Specifically, the studies which assessed the relationship between the chemical and physical properties of UCNPs and their biodistribution, excretion, and toxic effects are exhibited in detail. To end with, we also deliberate the challenges of guaranteeing the biosafety of UCNPs in vivo

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Publication details

The article was received on 15 Mar 2017, accepted on 12 May 2017 and first published on 16 May 2017


Article type: Review Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7NR01836C
Citation: Nanoscale, 2017, Accepted Manuscript
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    Up-conversion process its versatile biological applications and bio-safety

    A. Gulzar, J. Xu, P. yang, F. he and L. Xu, Nanoscale, 2017, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C7NR01836C

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