Group III nitride nanomaterials for biosensing
Biosensing has found its wide applications in biological and medical research, and in real-world diagnoses, environmental monitoring and other analytical tasks. Being recognized as novel and outstanding transducing materials because of their superior and unique physical/chemical properties, group III nitride (III–nitride) nanomaterials have been introduced to biosensor development with remarkable advancements achieved in the past decades. This paper presents the first comprehensive review on biosensor development with III–nitride nanomaterials. The review starts by introducing the material properties and biocompatibility of III–nitrides that are useful to biosensing. The focus is then placed on surface treatments which lay the foundation for biosensing, and on biosensing mechanisms where the exceptional properties of III–nitride nanomaterials lead to superior biosensing performance. From a practical point of view, techniques for biosensor fabrication are reviewed. Finally, existing biosensing applications and future directions are discussed.